Human Right

Human Rights :-

In the preamble to the United Nation Charter, the people of the United Nations declare their determination “to save succeeding generation from the scourge of war, reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom”. Accordingly, Article 1 of the Charter proclaims that on of the purposes of the United Nations is to achieve international cooperation in promoting and encouraging respect for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.


One of the first major achievements of the United Nations in the field of human rights was the adoption of the universal Declaration of Human rights by the general assembly on December 10m 1948. Each year, the anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration, December 10, is observed internationally as Human Rights Day.


Articles 1 and 2 of the Declaration state that “all human beings are born equal in dignity and rights” and are entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in the Declaration without distinction of any kind such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.


Articles 3 to 21 set forth the civil and political rights to which all human beings are entitled, including the right to life, liberty and security: freedom from slavery and servitude: freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment the right to recognition as a person before the law: the right to judicial remedy: freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention or exile; the right to a fair trial and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal; the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty; freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention or exile; the right to a fair trial and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal; the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty freedom from arbitrary interference with privacy, family home or correspondence; freedom a\from attacks upon honour and reputation; the right to protection of the law against such attacks; freedom of movement; the right of asylum; the right to a nationality; the right to marry and to found a family; the right to own property; freedom of thought, conscience and religion; freedom of opinion and expression; the right to peaceful assembly and association; the right to take part in government and to equal access to public service.


Articles 22 to 27 set forth the economic, social and cultural rights to which all human beings are entitled, including the right ot social security; the right to work; the right to equal pay for equal work; the right to form and join trade unions; the right to rest and leisure; the right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being; the right to education; the right to participate in the culture life of the community.


The concluding Articles, 28 to 30, recognize that everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the human rights set forth in the Declaration may be fully realized; that these rights may only be limited for the sole purpose of securing recognition and respect of the right and freedoms of others; and that each person has duties to the community in which she or he lives.


Following adoption of the Universal Declaration, work began on the drafting of two international Covenants on Human Rights- One on economic, social and cultural rights and the other on civil and political rights- to put into binding legal form the rights proclaimed in the Declaration.


The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Optional Protocol to the latterly on December 16, 1966. These instruments, along with the Declaration itself and a second Optional Protocol adopted in 1989, make up what is now widely known as the International Bill of Human Rights.


Set up by ECOSOC in 1946, the Commission on Human Rights is responsible for submitting proposals, recommendations and investigative reports on human rights issues through ECOSOC to the General Assembly. Over a period of time, the Commission has grown to be the prevailing human rights organ of the United Nations, providing a forum for states, intergovernmental and non-governmental organization to voice their concerns about human rights issues. Made up of 53 Member States elected for three-years terms, the Commission meets for six weeks each year in




. Twenty years after the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations commemorated the occasion by declaring 1968 as the International Year for Human Rights. The major event of the year was the International Conference on Human Rights in Teheran, which adopted a programme of action and a Proclamation.


Twenty-five Year the Teheran Conference, the 1993 World Conference in




marked a significant step forward in the attempt by the international community to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedom everywhere. The Vienna Declaration and Programme of action, emanating from the Conference, represents the basis for common future efforts the basis for common future efforts by the international community for the universal enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms.


The Conference was marked by an unprecedented degree of participation by Governments, United Nations agencies and bodes, national institutions and 841 non governmental organizations (NGOs) The Vienna Declaration and Programme of actiona was adopted by consensus by 171 States, and endorsed by the General Assembly in December 1993. The Assembly called for further action to fully implement the recommendations of the conference.


The Conference’s achievements include recommending the establishment of a High Commissioner for Human Rights; reinforcement of the universality of human rights; recognition for the first time, by consensus, that the right to development is an inalienable right; integration of economic, social and cultural rights as indivisible and interlinked with civil and political rights; recognition of democracy as human right, thus opening the way to the strengthening and promotion of democracy, democratization and the rule of law; recognition that the acts, methods and practices of terrorism aim at the destruction of human rights; and reinforcement of policies and programmes to eliminate racism and racial discrimination, xenophobia and intolerance.


Despite the work of United Nations, there continues to be massive and widespread violations of human rights. Five decades after th eUnversal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted, violations across the broad spectrum of human rights continue to dominate news from around the world. At least part of this can be attributed to the heightened awareness of human rights and stepped-up monitoring of problem abuses that until only recently were considered acceptable behaviour by traditional standars. Human rights are increasingly becoming part of the the daily operations of the UN in the field. The vigorous action of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and steps taken to enhance cooperation and coordination among UN partners are expressions of the concrete efforts to strengthen the ability of the human rights system.


As for Indian scenario, after independence we framed our Constitution and system of administration. Most of the human rights listed in the universal Declaration of Human Rights are incorporated in Part III or our constitution. According to this part, all laws inconsistent with fundamental rights are void and the fundamental rights are enforceable in courts of law. Some important rights of Indian citizens are- right to equality (Article 14-18) rights to freedom (Article 19-22) right against exploitation (Article 23-24), right to freedom of religion (Article 25-28), cultural and education rights, protecting the interests of minorities (Article 29-30). Our Constitution also incorporates a vast range of political, social, economic, cultural and religious rights. Special provisions are made to protect scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections of society. Untouchability is banned. Primary education is free for all. Thus




has recognized that




has recognized that human rights and democracy are inseparable.


Indian citizens are becoming conscious of their rights now and are demanding and end to all kinds of exploitation. A number of human rights organizations have come up to safeguard the interest of all human beings.